Tuesday, March 24, 2020

अभी उड़ान बाकी है!


ललिता बताती है की ‘’मैं खुद को बहुत भाग्यवान समझती हूँ की भगवान् ने मुझे एक ऐसा जीवन दिया जिसमें मुझे कई मौके मिले आगे बढ़ने के लिए और मैंने जीवन में कई रुकावटों के बाद भी इन मौकों का बहुत अच्छे से प्रयोग किया और पीछे मुड़ कर नहीं देखा|”

वैसे कहा जाए तो हर किसी के जीवन में आगे बढ़ने के लिए कई मौके आते है लेकिन यह आप पर निर्भर करता है कि है कि आप अपने जीवन को कैसे जीना चाहते हैं? आप चाहे तो, दुःख के समुन्द्र में दुःख का रोना रोकर उसमें डूबते चले जाते हैं , या ख़ुशी की नाव पर सवार होकर उसे पारकर सकते हैं।


ललिता- जीविका आई-सक्षम एडू-लीडर 
ललिता बेगुसराय जिलेके जगदीशपुर गाँव  में पैदा हुईं। वे अपने माता- पिता, नौ बहनो और एक भाई के साथ रहती थी ।पिता रामोतार राय, परिवार के पालने के लिए अपने घर पर ही एक छोटी सी दुकान चलाते थे | ज़ाहिर  सी बात है, लम्बे परिवार होने के कारण आर्थिक तंगी रहती थी,पर ललिताके अंदर पढ़ने  का अलग ही ज़ज्बा था| यह उन दिव्यांग महिलाओं में से हैं जिन्होंने कभी खुद को किसी से कम नही समझा और हमेशा अपने दिल की सुनते हुए आगे बढ़ी| अपने हौसले और जज्बे को बनाये रख उन्होंने खुद को शिक्षित करने का ज़िम्मा उठाया और कम उम्र में ही घर पर बच्चों को पढ़ाना शुरू कर दिया | इस तरह वह  अपनी पढाई का खर्च भी निकाल लेती थी और अपने पिताजी की मदद भी किया करती थीं |वह बताती हैं की यह उनके लिए बड़े ही गौरव की बात थी जब उन्होंने अपनी स्नातक की डिग्री हासिल की|

जून 2014 में ललिता का विवाह  मुंगेर जिले के  विजयनगर निवासी श्री जितेन्द्र मंडल से  हुआ। लेकिन उनके आगे बढ़ने और सीखने की चाहत अब  भी बरक़रार थी |कुछ समय पश्चात उन्होंने अपने ससुराल में एक बार फिर से बच्चों को पढ़ाना शुरू कर दिया।
ललिता के जीवन में कई  संघर्ष भी आए लेकिन, ललिता ककी दृढ इच्छाशक्ति के सामने  हर समस्या बौनी नजर आती। इसी दौरान वो  जीविका की CM(community mobilizer) सेमिली जिनसे उन्हें आई-सक्षम और जीविका के सहयोग से चलने वाले एडू-लीडर फ़ेलोशिप  कार्यक्रम के बारे में पता चला। उनकी दृढता, कार्य और लगन के कारण उनका इस फ़ेलोशिप में चयन भी हो गया | फ़ेलोशिप के तहत उन्हें शिक्षण पद्धति, सामूहिक नेतृत्व एवं अन्य विषयों पर साप्ताहिक प्रशिक्षण के साथ-साथ अपने गाँव के किसी विद्यालय या सामुदायिक  भवन में पढ़ाना था | जिस गावं में उन्हें पढ़ाना था, उस विद्यालय में पर्याप्त  शिक्षक थे, और कोई भी सामुदायिक भवन नहीं  मिल  रहा था |  प्रारंभ में उन्हें  कई  समस्याओं का सामना  भी करना पड़ा लेकिन वो इनसे पीछे नही हटीं जैसे –पढ़ाने के लिए कमरों की सुविधा  ना होना, बच्चों के बैठने के लिए दरी का न होना , स्कूल के अन्य बच्चों का अनुशासनहीन व्यवहार। इन सभी समस्याओं के कारण शुरुआत में  वह काफी विचलित थीं लेकिन उन्हें पूरा यक़ीन था कि वह अपने परिश्रम , लगन और संस्था की सहायता से इसे जरुर आसान बना देंगी| वह खुद से अपने गाँव के सरकारी विद्यालय में प्रधानाध्यापक से मिली और उन्हें इस एडू-लीडर कार्यक्रम के बारे में बताया| प्रधानाध्यापक द्वारा ललिता को विद्यालय में पढ़ाने के लिए कुछ समय दिया गया| चंद दिनों में ही ललिता द्वारा गतिविधि के साथ पढ़ाने के तरीके से वहाँ के प्रधानाध्यापक और शिक्षक काफी प्रभावित हुए , और उन्हें अलग पढ़ाने के लिए कमरा मुहैया  कराया | आज ललिता उसी विद्यालय में ढाई घंटा बच्चों को गुणवत्तापूर्ण शिक्षा प्रदान करने का काम कर रही हैं|

कहते हैं कि आप के हुनर व् जज्बे से अगर अन्य लोग प्रभावित होते हैं, तो आप वाकई में एक प्रतिभाशाली व् असरदार इंसान हैं| कुछ ऐसा ही हुआ ललिता के विद्यालय में| ललिता ने कक्षा को रोमांचक बनाने के लिए बच्चों द्वारा बनाये गए चित्र, क्राफ्ट, पोस्टर, शिक्षण अधिगम सामग्री आदि कक्षा की दीवारों पर लगाए| कक्षा एक ऐसा बदला स्वरुप देख कर उनके विद्यालय के प्रधानाध्यापक इतने प्रभावित हुए कि उन्होंने विद्यालय के अन्य कमरों में कारीगर बुलवा कर बच्चों के सीखने के लिए रंग बिरंगी आकृतियां और अन्य प्रकार की कला दीवारों पर बनवा दी|

विद्यालय में बनवाई आकृतियों के साथ ललिता के विद्यालय के प्रधानाध्यापक
“इनकेपढ़ाने का तरीका मुझे काफी अच्छा  लगता है, सबसे अच्छी बात ये है की बच्चे काफी खुश रहते है “
        - लड्डू पासवान (स्कूल प्रिंसिपल मध्य विद्यालय बिजय नगर जमालपुर )


अगर आप अच्छा कार्य करते हैं तो समय समय पर आपकी परीक्षा भी होती है| कुछ ऐसा ही ललिता के साथ हुआ जब एक दिन उनके विद्यालय पर उनके द्वारा लगायी गयी बच्चों की सभी कला बच्चों ने स्वयं ही फाड़ दी| इस समस्या का हल ढूँढ़ते हुए ललिता व् आई-सक्षम से उनके सहयोगी ने शिक्षक अभिभावक बैठक के दौरान यह बात अभिभावकों के सामने रखने की सोची| पर किसे मालूम था कि शिक्षक अभिभावक बैठक से जहाँ एक ओर इस समस्या का सुधार होगा वहीँ दूसरी और ललिता खुद को समाज में एक महत्ववपूर्ण बिंदु की तरह देख पाएंगी| जब उनके विद्यालय में शिक्षक अभिभावक बैठक हुई तो उन्होंने सभी अभिभावकों में उनके बच्चों की शैक्षणिक स्तिथि की समझ बनायी| साथ ही उन्होंने सभी अभिभावकों को अपने द्वारा ट्रेनिंग के अनुसार किये जा रहे नए प्रयोग के बारे में भी बताया| अभिभावकों के लिए किसी का बच्चों को इस तरह से पढ़ाना और विद्यालय में खुद इस तरह बच्चों की सिक्षा को लेकर एकत्रित होना बिलकुल नया था| मानो उनका एक विशवास सा बन उठा कि उनके बच्चे अब एक बेहतर शिक्षा हासिल कर पायेंगे| ललिता बताती हैं की शिक्षक अभिभावक बैठक के बाद उनकी समाज में काफी इज्ज़त की जाती है और लोग उन्हें स्नेह भरी निगाहों से देखते हैं|

अभिभावक शिक्षक बैठक में शिक्षण अधिगम सामग्री की समझ बनाते हुए ललिता|
आज भी ललिता की प्रेरणा बिलकुल वैसे ही बरकरार है| वह हर सप्ताह होने वालेअपने प्रशिक्षण में हमेशा आधा घंटा पहले उपस्तिथ होती हैं और आज तक कभी अनुपस्थित नहीं हुई हैं| वह अपने फ़ेलोशिप के समूह में कई लोगों की प्रेरणा का स्रोत हैं| इस कार्य में एक मुख्य भूमिका ललिता के जीवन साथी भी निभा रहे हैं जो कि ललिता को ट्रेन से प्रशिक्षण केंद्र आने में कोई समस्या न हो, इसके लिए हर प्रशिक्षण में उनके साथ आते हैं|

ललिता कहती हैएडू-लीडर प्रोग्राम का हिस्सा होने के कारण मेरा सम्मान समाज में बढ़ा है , समाज के लोग मुझे हर काम में सहयोग करते हैं और मैं अपने समय को सही से प्रबंध कर पाती हूँ | वह अपने अन्दर अब अधिक उत्साह भी पाती हैं और उनके हौसलों को बनाए रखने के लिए आई-सक्षम परिवार सदैव उनके साथ खड़ा है| अब वह बच्चों को पढ़ाने के साथ-साथ सरकारी नौकरी की तैयारी भी कर रही हैं।

ललिता कहती हैं – “ यह  तो बस शुरुआत है अभी  तो  बहुत कुछ करना है।अभी तो पंख लगे हैं, अभी उड़ान बाकी है|




Saturday, February 15, 2020

EDU-LEADERS USING TECHNOLOGY TO EMPOWER COMMUNITY



Technology literacy is one of the important literacy skills students require to keep pace with the fast-changing world in the 21st century. In the digital age, where technology is taking over the day to day transactions like e-learning, e-hospital, e-banking and accessing important government schemes, it is necessary to be able to use, manage, understand and access technology. Thus, the know-how of technology use is essential for local youths emerging as social change agents in their community.  They learn the use of tech throughout the fellowship training.

SEEKHE SIKHAYEN (LEARN AND TEACH)

The design of i-Saksham fellowship is deeply rooted in the philosophy of "Seekhe-Sikhayen” i.e. learn and teach. In the fellowship journey youths develop as edu-leaders. Edu-leaders are those local youths from the community who are willing to make knowledge and learning a powerful medium to enable and empower himself/herself and others in the community. The fellowship training works on the personal transformation of fellows through building their content knowledge, communication skills, coaching skills, and creative skills to ensure they deliver quality education to underserved children. To be able to fulfill the purpose, i-Saksham uses innovative pedagogy methods, including digital technology. Edu-leaders are given a mobile phone as a supporting tool for their learning as well as children. Edu-leaders learn (Seekhe) the use of mobile which includes building an understanding of learning apps, use of online resources for self-learning, operating dashboard for effective centre management.  Edu-leaders teach (Sikhayen)  children with the support of the apps and video content, as we strongly believe what Bill Gates once said “Technology is just a tool. In terms of getting the kids working together and motivating them, the teacher is the most important."  We strongly have faith in the capabilities of our edu-leaders and the mobile phone acts as a supporting tool in the development of our edu-leaders and children.

Edu-leaders learning use of tablet in their fellowship training

THREE E’S OF USING TECHNOLOGY IN CLASSROOM: EXCITEMENT, ENGAGEMENT AND ENRICHING LEARNING EXPERIENCE

EXCITEMENT

Across the community learning centres and schools, edu-leaders are using technology in their classroom.  They use mobile phone for teaching. It provides a platform for children to explore the use of mobile by themselves, it gives them a sense of self-learning and allows learning at their own pace thereby keeping them interested and excited in activities. "Children have shown excitement when they play games and use learning apps," says an edu-leader Rohit from Sonay. Learning apps like Bolo app, Hello English, Duolingo, Word Swipe and Math Duel are useful in getting students excited and motivating them to learn. "I divide children into groups and turn by turn they learn using the app. Students wait for their turn. I have seen them enjoying doing this exercise. I also feel supported as when I'm teaching one group, I can pay attention to them effectively as the other group is learning by themselves using learning app" says Kajal an edu-leader from Adampur, Munger. Thus, the use of tech serves two-fold purpose bringing excitement as well as strengthening the teaching process.

Children doing a group activity 

ENGAGEMENT

सर फ़ोन में दिखायेंगे हमको ? गूगल में खोलके देख लेते है  says a curious student at Paramjeet’s Learning Centre excitedly to look meaning of a word. An important aspect of teaching is to keep learners involved. Learning happens when the learner actively participates, inquires, asks questions and is deeply engaged. Paramjeet is an edu-leader from Kolua. He shares his positive experience using tech in his classroom “when children know they will learn watching videos, they reach early at the centre because they are fond of using mobile. I have observed that they learn quickly to sing rhyme with the help of action while watching the video. When I use learning app like Math duel or other apps in which they sit in small groups and compete against each other, I'm surprised to see irrespective of whoever wins the game, all of them gets happy, laugh on scores and enjoy learning together" this is an example of how tech-based learning opportunities offer a space to build other skillsets like cooperation, using emotional intelligence, communication needed to thrive in the world. This also strengthens the teaching process for Paramjeet, as when children ask general questions or meaning of a word he quickly uses online resources and responds.
"The drive to show the world how children are learning at my centre I created a YouTube channel village kids learning centre” says Paramjeet, who actively runs his own youTube channel putting videos of his innovative teaching and activity-based learning.  When children go back home they search for the channel and show it to their parents. They feel extremely joyful to watch themselves on youTube.“वाह !हम मोबाइल में आ रहे है |”- says a student, who is amused to watch himself on screen. Children feel motivated to learn and actively participate in the classroom session. Like Paramjeet, there are 90 + other local youths (edu-leaders of the community)who are empowering their community.


Children watching Meena video 

ENRICHING TEACHING AND LEARNING EXPERIENCE

Children always acknowledge novelty in classroom learning and Pravin, an edu-leader from Lakhanpur shares "with use of the internet I'm able to do something new in the classroom. Earlier I used to share syllabus based knowledge and now I'm able to share more about the world and surroundings. I use ePathshala to teach and children are always eager to learn something new”. Pravin uses digital content frequently to teach concepts of English, Hindi, Maths and prepare lesson plans.
These voices of the community exhibit the effectiveness of tech-based learning. Edu-leaders enriching the educational experience of underserved children face many challenges, some of them are - students' lack of interest in learning, multi-grade – multi-level students in classroom and classroom management. To address these challenges they have found the use of mobile to be useful. With different groups of different levels, one group learns using an app while another group engages in an activity with edu-leader. Edu-leader feels that playing video saves a lot of time as children watch and they explain topics along with it. Furthermore, there is a wealth of information out there, this helps in generating ideas for taking a session on particular themes. Recently on the occasion of Republic Day, edu-leaders used mobile to show videos, conducted art and craft sessions, children prepared national songs and celebrated the day.


Children playing Math duel

COACHING FROM A DISTANCE: MENTORING AND FACILITATING LEARNING FOR EDU-LEADERS VIRTUALLY

Our edu-leaders come from different rural areas. Today they are addressing educational challenges because in their school life they have faced challenges due to lack of opportunity to access quality education. Most of our edu-leaders’ dream is to learn English speaking, perfect reading, and writing skills, secure a job and become a teacher. Their dream is our dream. In the digital era, mobile phones make it possible to connect. They come for training once a week and on other days we coach them virtually, we run a learning group on WhatsApp. Edu-leaders are divided into a different group and each group has one team member. Team member facilitates English learning sessions, practice exercises are given and additionally general awareness information is shared with them to add value in their learning and support them to achieve their dreams.

TECH SE SAKSHAM- STORY OF A 19-YEAR-OLD EDU-LEADER EARNING 16000 EVERY MONTH !

Priya is a 19-year-old edu-leader and currently in her second year of graduation. As part of the i-Saksham fellowship, she has been facilitating a session at Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya, Jamui. She also runs her learning centre in Bithalpur. Priya’s interest lies in doing art and craftwork. Her interest motivated her to look up YouTube videos and paint, draw and do craftwork in other forms. One will find her making the best use of waste materials, she made a pen stand using old newspaper. Her fondness for art and craft is now helping her earn. An online agent of the "VMate” app connected with her and asked if she is interested in making craft videos. Priya felt it was a good opportunity and started making videos. Priya spends almost one and a half hours every day to make videos, every week she receives Rs. 4000 and she earns Rs.16000 per month. “It requires a lot of patience to make these videos, I make 10-20 videos every week but I enjoy making these. I feel empowered” says Priya.
Many other edu-leaders are using online resources to prepare for general competition, learn English, look for job opportunities and as well as teaching more effectively.

We at i-Saksham, strongly believe that everyone is capable to fulfill their dreams provided resources and platforms are given to bridge the gap. Effective use of technology is one of the way to strengthen the learning and teaching process.



Thursday, February 6, 2020

गणित की क्लास


  वो गणित के पहाड़े, सर के इशारे;
  वो सर की मार, होती सबको इंकार|
  वो पहली ही घंटी, लगती बड़ी गंदी;
  वो गणित के पहाड़े, सर के इशारे||
                     
                  वो सवाल का बन जाना, बच्चों का खुश हो जाना;
                                 वो 90+ अंक का आना, खुशी से उछल-कूद करना|
                                 वो फेल अगर हो जाना, एकदम मायूस हो जाना;
                                 वो सवाल का बन जाना, बच्चों का खुश हो जाना||
  
  वो sine का cos होना, तेज़ से भुसकोल होना;
  वो calculus की क्लास, लगती बड़ी बकवास|
  वो stats के सवाल, होते पास सारे जवाव;
  वो sine का cos होना, तेज़ से भुसकोल होना||

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

A Young Artist at Work


Ken Robinson in his TED talk on ‘School Kills creativity,’ which is the most watched talk on TED, argues that “Creativity is as important as literacy”. Importance of creativity was selected as one of the four 21st Century Skills along with critical thinking, collaboration and communication. Thus incorporating creativity in classroom can be further used as powerful tool to hone skills like problem solving, critical thinking and decision making required to build children, as citizens of 21st century. Unlike the traditional way of teaching when the teacher directs students to learn through memorization of concepts and children become mere recipient of information, creativity encourages students to think out of the box and express themselves. In classroom, project based learning plays a vital role to encourage learning by creating as it provides children an opportunity to think of themes, use different tools and materials, manage time, learn with each other and design a model.
Creativity is a valuable skill that cannot be taught but developed in conducive learning environment
Abhishek, a young boy learning at Raj Kumar’s Community Learning Centre dived his hands into what most children of his age could not even think of. Abhishek is a keen observer and fond of watching videos demonstrating car manufacturing. He has been observing a working JCB (Joseph Cyril Bamford) in his village for one month and this drived him to try his hands on designing a JCB model.
Abhishek spent three days with full dedication to gather tools like syringes, pipes and cardboard and completed his model. He managed to find these in and around his home all by himself. He used cardboard to make structure, pipe to connect and syringes to change the directions and facilitate working of JCB to lift thing.


 JCB Model
Abhishek’s family and Raj Kumar, his teacher were happy to see his exceptionally talented work and appreciated his efforts. बहुत अच्छा बनाया हैं I अभिषेकं बचपन से ही मेहनती हैं। वह अपनी शिक्षा के प्रति पर्याप्त जिम्मेदार है। says Abhishek’s mother. For him this is just the beginning, “ये तो शुरवात हैं, अभी बहुत कुछ करना हैं |” says a 13 year old boy who aspires to be an Engineer. He is passionate about his own interest as well as dedicated towards his learning. He spends nearly two hours in self-study. He likes to play badminton and dance.
                                          A JCB Machine by young hands 

The process of creating model by one student inspired others to unleash their potential to create 

The JCB model designed by Abhishek inspired other students in class to explore their talents and thoughts. His classmates started designing models and looked up to Raj Kumar to give them project. 
Aditya, who is also Abhishek’s brother studying in class 4th made a small toy car with the help of battery box of Philips bulb and wheels of broken toy. He also designed a water fall using pipe and thermocol.

Anant, studying in class 1st with the help of Abhishek made computer using thermocol. 


Ankit, studying in UKG made Chandrayaan using chart paper and with the support of Raj Kumar.

JCB, Water fall, Cement mixer, Chandrayaan, Computer designed by students at Raj Kumar’s Centre

A great teacher can change everything

Raj Kumar, an edu-leader running his community learning centre at Lagma plays supportive role amongst his students to think out of the box. His strong belief that creativity enhances thinking ability and allows children to explore their imagination inspires him to promote creative activities. He encouraged students to try hands on making Chandrayaan, following ISRO news. Going forward, he plans to give children projects on different themes in every two months and practice project based learning in his classroom. He plans to exhibit these models during Saraswati festival to show hidden talents of his students to their parents and community. His constant motivation led Abhishek to design cement mixer and he is intending to make model of his village for Saraswati festival. Raj Kumar is a young enthusiast and these significant changes are glaring example of his perseverant efforts to strengthen primary education in his community and nurture young minds for better tomorrow.
We, at i-Saksham, carry a dream to improve primary education of underserved children and strongly belief that local youths have power to bring the social change and lead their community. Constant coaching, mentoring, and supportive ecosystem are the keys. 
We thank Anubhuti who volunteered with us for all her contribution in this article. 

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

LITERACY THROUGH CREATIVITY: The Love for Letters!


Each letter of the alphabet has a story to tell…




T’ tells the story of the Table where the teachers- Sangeeta and Sonam stood up to display on the wall, the poster for Van Mahotsav (Forest Day) for their class children.

‘B’ tells the story of the ‘Bananas and Biscuits’ that Saurabh brought and shared with his hungry friends. 


P’ tells the story of the Paper with which Parvati decorated her Rakhi and tied on her classmate, Pandav’s wrist.



As more stories get unfolded, we will take a look at the different ways in which the Edu-Leaders of i-Saksham have made learning the Letters of the Alphabet fun, creative and thus effective. And the children? They were only left asking for more. Quite like the letters, each Letter Teaching Technique had a different story to tell, unique memories and observations to be revealed..

Chalk Challenge




·      It seemed as if a page from a Language textbook had come alive on the floor! It all started with a chalk. Two forms were designed by the Edu-Leader, one was a word and the other was the matching picture to it. The children had to simply string the letters together to read the word and identify the matching picture! Oh, and they had to fill up within the chalk outline too. With colours? No! With slippers. And the outcome: children ended up without their slippers but with an increased appetite to practice writing their letters and words the same way, the very next day!

    
      An Inter-Connected Chain of Letters



·        i-Saksham Edu-Leader, Sangeeta was enthusiastic about shared learning. Whether it was to learn a new technique as a teacher or whether it was to involve the class in a co-operative group activity, sharing was the key to learn! Sangeeta said, “The children were tracing the letter ‘a’ on each others’ backs. This is a technique that I learnt from my Buddy, Sonam Bharti. It helped those children especially who were having difficulty in writing.”


      Flash The Cards




The i-Saksham Edu-Leaders use Letter Cards in many different ways to engage the children. The cards could be hung up on the wall and their sequences altered so that children develop a more solid foundation of letter and phonic sound comprehension. Several classroom games too have been developed using these Letter Cards. One of them includes randomly picking up a Letter Card, identifying it and singing a rhyme that begins with the letter.


In this picture, Edu Leader Sangeeta is teaching children how to construct words using the letter flashcards






Likewise, i-Saksham Edu-Leader, Rohit’s favourite game with his class children is distributing one Letter Card to each child in the class and then calling out a word, say, चमक. The children with each of the letters stand up in the required order to make up the word. 
After building foundational letter recognition and word building skills, Edu-Leader Rohit focusses on developing reading skills. In this picture, he’s encouraging the children to read aloud.
Matra ki Yatra

The matra (vowels in Hindi) are made with thick chart paper and stuck on the board. Children combine it with letters to distinguish between the sounds. Rohit explained, “When we write the words with the matras on the board with a chalk, they get rubbed off easily and children forget. But when the matras remain stuck on the board, the concept remains fresh in the child’s memory for longer.”



Charisma of Colors

Another creative teaching technique involved blending crafts and colours in making words! The colourful beads that would be used for stringing were used innovatively by the teacher, while the children enjoyed practicing the letter forms and uniquely designed them.



Learn with Tech







Educational apps have also been tapped to enrich the learning experience of the letters of the alphabet. Several App based learning games like ‘Hindi Matra Waale’, ‘Varnmala’, ‘Word Swipe’  etc. have  helped the children in writing the letters, and in hearing and saying the sounds, reading and naming the letters, moving their hands smoothly and even recognizing the colours.


As a result of these diverse creative teaching strategies, the children have started taking a deeper interest in not only writing and reading in class, but also helping their fellow classmates in picking up these skills. As one child listens, the other one helps them recognize and name the sound of the letter. As one child names aloud the letter or the word, another child helps him or her by holding the hand and writing that word or letter in the book. And the question that the teachers get asked the most, “didi, when will we do this activity again? Should we learn this again?”